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H

Hammock: An aggregate or summary activity (a group of related activities is shown as one and reported at a summary level). A hammock may or may not have an internal sequence. See also subproject and subnet.

Hanger: An unintended break in a net work path. Hangers are usually caused by missing activities or missing logical relationship.


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I

Information Distribution: Making needed information available to project  stakeholders  in a timely manner.

Initiation: Authorizing the project or phase.

Integrated Change Control: Coordinating changes across the entire project.

 Integrated Cost/Schedule Reporting: See earned value.

Invitation for Bid (IFB): Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.


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K

Key Event Schedule: See master schedule.


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L

Lag: A modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the successor task. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lag, the successor activity cannot start until ten days after the predecessor has finished. See also lead.

Late Finish Date (LF): In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may be completed without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date).

Late Start Date (LS): In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may begin without delaying a specified milestone (usually the finish date).

Lead: A modification of a logical relationship that allows an acceleration of the successor task. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lead, the successor activity can start ten days before the predecessor has finished. See also lag.

Lessons Learned: The learning gained from the process of performing the project. Lessons learned may be identified at any point. Also considered a project record.

Level  of Effort (LOE): Support-type activity (e.g., vendor or customer liaison) that does not readily lend itself to measurement of discrete accomplishment. It is generally characterized by a uniform rate of activity over a period of time determined by the activities it supports.

Leveling: See resource leveling.

Life-Cycle Costing: The concept of including acquisition, operating, and disposal costs when evaluating various alternatives.

Line Manager: 1) The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. 2) A functional manager.

Link: See logical relationship.

Logic: See network logic.

Logic Diagram: See project network diagram.

Logical Relationship: A dependency between two project activities, or between a project activity and a milestone. See also precedence relationship. The four possible types of logical relationship are:

Finish-to-start--the initiation of work of the successor depends upon the completion of work of the predecessor.
Finish-to-finish--the completion of the work of the successor cannot finish until the completion of work of the predecessor.
Start-to-start--the initiation of work of the successor depends upon the initiation of the work of the predecessor.
Start-to-finish--the completion of the successor is dependent upon the initiation of the predecessor.
Loop: A network path that passes the same node twice. Loops cannot be analyzed using traditional network analysis techniques such as critical path method and program evaluation and review technique. Loops are allowed in graphical evaluation and review technique.


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M

Master Schedule: A summary-level schedule that identifies the major activities and key milestone. See also milestone schedule.

Mathematical Analysis: See network analysis.

Matrix Organization: Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers  for assigning priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to the project.

Milestone: A significant event in the project, usually completion of a major deliverable.

Milestone Schedule: A summary-level schedule that identifies the major milestone. See also master schedule.

Mitigation: See risk mitigation.

Monitoring: The capture, analysis, and reporting of project performance, usually as compared to plan.

Monte Carlo Analysis: A technique that performs a project simulation many times to calculate a distribution of likely results. See simulation.

 
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