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A

Accountability Matrix: See responsibility assignment matrix. 

Activity: An element of work performed during the course of a p-. An activity normally has an expected duration, an expected cost, and expected resource requirement. Activities can be subdivided into tasks.  

Activity Definition: Identifying the specific activities that must be performed to produce the various project deliverables.

Activity Description (AD): A short phrase or label used in a Project network diagram. The activity description normally describes the Scope of work of the activity.

Activity Duration Estimating: Estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual activity.

Activity-on-Arrow (AOA): See arrow-diagramming method.

Activity-on-Node (AON): See precedence diagramming method.

Activity Sequencing: Identifying and documenting interactivity logical relationships.

Actual Cost (AC): Total costs incurred that must relate to whatever cost was budgeted within the planning value and earned value (which can sometimes be direct labor hours alone, direct costs alone, or all costs including indirect costs) in accomplishing work during a given time period. See also earned value.

Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP): This term has been replaced with the term actual cost.

Actual Finish Date (AF): The point in time that work actually ended on an activity. (Note: In some application area, the activity is considered "finished" when work is substantially complete.")

Actual Start Date (AS): The point in time that work actually started on an activity.

Administrative Closure: Generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalizephase or project completion.

Application Area: A category of projects that have common elements not present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product of the project (i.e., by similar technologies or industry sectors) or the type of customer (e.g., internal versus external, government versus commercial). Application areas often overlap.  

Arrow: The graphic presentation of an activity. See also arrow-diagramming method.

Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM): A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows. The tail of the arrow represents the start, and the head represents the finish of the activity (the length of the arrow does not represent the expected duration of the activity). Activities are connected at points called nodes (usually drawn as small circles) to illustrate the sequence in which the activities are expected to be performed. See also precedence diagramming method.

As-of Date: See 'data 'date.

Assumptions: Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain. Assumptions affect all aspects of project planning, and are part of the progressive elaboration of the project. Project teams frequently identify, document, and validate assumptions as part of their planning process. Assumptions generally involve a degree of risk.

Assumptions analysis: A technique that explores the assumptions' accuracy and identifies risk to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions.


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B


Backward Pass: The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. Determined by working backwards through the network logic from the project’s end date. The end date may be calculated in a forward pass or set by the customer or sponsor. See also network analysis.

Bar Chart: A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, activities or other project elements are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars. Also called a Gantt chart.

Baseline: The original approved plan (for project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved scope changes Usually used with a modifier (e g, cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline).

Baseline Finish Date: See schedule finish date.

Baseline Start Date: See schedule start date.

Brainstorming: A general creativity technique that can be used to identify risk using a group of team members or subject-matter experts. Typically, a brainstorming session is structured so that each participant's ideas are recorded for later analysis. A tool of the risk identification process.

Budget at Completion (BAC): The sum of the total budgets for a project.

Budget Estimate: See estimate.

Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP): This term has been replaced with the term earned value.

 
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