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II.现象法

   对某种社会现象、倾向或社会问题进行剖析的文章往往在文章一开始首先引出这种
现象或问题,然后评论。本节句型就适用于这种开头。

11  Recently the  rise in
phenomenon of
problem of
question of  ... has
11  drawn / aroused public / popular / grave / world-wide attention
caused /aroused wide / general / considerable / international concern
arisen /loomed up /cropped up as controversial /as noteworthy/more
distinctly for settlement

   11.1 Recently, the alarm about the problem of the use of genetic
technologies on human beings have caused wide public concern, and
understandably so. With nuclear energy threatening global catastrophe and
with so many other technological advances visibly damaging the quality of
life, who would wish to have scientists tampering with man's inner nature?
Indeed, fear of such manipulation may amuse even more anxiety than fear of
death.
   最近,有关把遗传技术用于人类自身而产生的问题的警示已引起了公众的广泛关
注。这是可以理解的。核能开发正威胁着全球的生存,其它许多技术进步也正明显地危
害生活的质量。在这种情况下,谁还会希望科学家来任意改变人体内部机能呢?确实,
害怕对人的操纵所引起的担忧可能会超过对死亡的害怕。

   11.2 Recently psychologists have found only about two percent of adults
use their creativity, compared with ten percent of seven-year-old children.
When five-year-olds were tested, the result soared to ninety percent! The
findings set off many people thinking. Curiosity and originality are daily
occurrences for the small child, but somehow most of us lose the freedom and (来源:英语学习门户 http://www.EnglishCN.com)
flexibility of the child as we grow older. The need to follow "directions"
and "do-it-right", plus the many societal constraints we put on ourselves,
prevent us from using our creative potential.
   最近,心理学家发现在使用自己创造力方面,成人只有2%,而7岁的儿童竟有10
%。如果在5岁的儿童中测试,这个数上升到90%。这些发现引起许多人思索。好奇心
和创造性每天可在小孩子身上发现,而当我们逐步长大成人,多数人丧失了孩子的那种
自由和灵活性。“按常规去做”,“按正确的去做”,以及种种社会的清规戒律把我们
束缚住了,使我们无法发挥自己的创造潜力。

12   Recently the  issue
problem
question  of... has been  in the limelight.
brought into focus.
brought to public attention.
posed among the general public.

   12.1 The problem of development vs. environment has now been in the
limelight. Nowhere is the clash more visible than in China, where the
world's largest population faces pollution, deforestation and acid rain on a
large scale.
   现在发展与环境的问题已成为人们议论的中心。在中国这对矛盾表现得尤为明显。
这个世界上人口最多的国家正面临着大量的环境污染、森林减少以及酸雨的袭击。

13   In   recent
the past  5 years, many  cities
nations
people  have  been faced /plagued /troubled with
experienced/witnessed /undergone  the
a(n)  serious problem of
acute shortage of
alarming increase in

   13.1 In recent years many factories of our country have been faced with
the problem of how to make their workers more productive. Seeing many idle
workers smoking, chatting, or playing cards during the working hours, some
experts claim that the solution is to increase economic reward. Other people
feel that "the iron rice bowl" should be roughly smashed. But does mere
money lead to greater productivity?
   近年来我国许多工厂一直面临着如何提高工人的生产效率的问题。针对许多工人上
班的无所事事,抽烟,聊天或打牌的现象,有些专家主张通过增加经济报酬来解决。另
一些人认为应彻底打破铁饭碗。但是增加钱是否就能提高生产率呢?

   13.2 In recent years, China has experienced an alarming increase in
juvenile crime ------ that is, crime committed by individuals who haven't
come of age. Whether the category is murder or robbery, mugging or rape, the
story is the same: juvenile crime is on the rise. Our society has
traditionally treated the juvenile as a special kind of offender, one who
warrants punishment different from that given to an adult, even though the
crime may be the same. Now it is time we asked ourselves: Does the treatment
work?
   最近几年,中国的青少年犯罪率急剧上升。不管那些没成年人的犯罪涉及到谋杀、
偷盗、抢劫或是强奸,情形是一样的:青少年犯
罪在增加。我们社会的传统做法是把这些青少年当成一种特殊的罪犯处理,尽管他们的
罪行和成年人一样,但所给的惩罚和成年人不同。现在该是问一问我们自己的时候了:
这种做法是否有效?

14   One of the  searching
burning
pressing
interesting questions
problems facing
confronting our nation
society
world today is ...

   14.1 One of the basic questions facing our society today is: What promise
or threat does new technology hold for our global future? Since the
decisions our society makes about technological development will undoubtedly
have tremendous consequences in the years to come, it is urgently necessary
to explore this question, especially by examining science and technology in
their relationship to the development of humanity.
   当今社会面临的基本问题之一是:新技术会给世界的将来带来什么样的希望或威胁
?由于我们的社会所作出的关于技术发展的决定会毫无疑问对未来产生巨大影响,因此
探索这个问题,尤其是通过检查科学技术与人类发展的关系来这样做就变得非常紧迫和
必要了。


   14.2 It has become apparent to us that one of the biggest problems
confronting our Chinese education today is the increasing vocationalization
of our colleges and universities. Throughout the country schools are under
economic pressure to become job-training centers and employment agencies.
All courses are geared to cater to the business needs.
   很明显中国的教育现在面临的最大问题之一是高等院校职业化倾向。在经济发展的
压力下,全国许多大学成了职业培训中心或就业市场机构。课程的设置都一昧迎合市场
的需要。

15   One of the  biggest issues
hottest topics
most popular things
most serious problems  many people  talk
complain  about now is...

   15.1 One of the most popular topics many city residents talk about now is
the tide of the rural poor flooding the cities. They complain that the
migrants have brought crime and prostitution, that they are putting pressure
on population control and social order; that they are threatening to take
already scarce city jobs and exacerbating housing shortages; and that they
have worsened traffic and sanitation problems. True, these are the problems
posed by the migration, but what about the contribution the rural worker
have made to the city's development and prosperity?
   许多市民现在谈得最多的话题之一是源源不断涌进城市的民工潮。他们抱怨民工把
犯罪和卖淫带来了,给城市人口的控制和社会秩序带来了压力,并威胁着夺走本来已很
紧张的城市工作机会,使得城市住房、交通、卫生等问题更为突出。是的,这些都是民
工潮带来的问题,但怎么看待他们对城市的发展和繁荣所作出的贡献呢?

   15.2 One of the best qualities that most people admire in others is the
willingness to admit one's mistakes. It is extremely hard sometimes to say a
simple thing like "I was wrong about that", and it is even harder to say, "I
was wrong, and you were right about that".
   大多数人所佩服的别人的最好的品质之一,是敢于承认自己的错误。有时人们发觉
很难开口说这样简单的话:“在这一点上是
我错了。”而说:“我错了,你是对的。”则更难。

16  Now
Perhaps  most  dangerous
undesirable
harmful for our  nation
society
world
college  is the  trend
tendency
phenomenon  of...which is  apparent
obvious
evident
pervasive
rampant
under way  in...

   16.1 Perhaps most dangerous for our nation now is the official corruption
which is rampant in nearly every field of our society. Once our officials
were content with television sets or imported cigarettes as payment for
official services, they now demand land rights, stock certificates, and even
directly dollars.
   现在对我们的国家最有危险的恐怕要算是官员的腐败。腐败之风已蔓延到我们社会
的几乎每一个领域。过去办事官员还只满
足于电视机,香烟之类的东西作回报,现在他们已要求土地产权,股票证券,甚至直截
了当要美元。

17   Inflation
Corruption
Social inequality is yet another of the new and bitter truths we have to
learn to face  now.
constantly.

   17.1 Cheating is yet another of the bitter truths we have to learn to
face now. It is so prevalent and so widely accepted that it becomes a way of
academic life. Even the mast gifted students, the one who presumably could
get good grades without cheating, are becoming the constant offenders.
Getting a good academic record and later a good professional career is the
most important goal and they will do anything they must to attain it.
   考试作弊是我们不得不接受的又一严峻的事实。作弊是那么普遍和司空见惯,已成
为大学生活中的一个方面。连最有天赋的学生,那些不靠作弊也能取得好成绩的学生也
常常作弊。对他们来说,有一个学业优秀的记录和将来有一个令人羡慕的工作比什么
都重要,为达到这一目标,他们什么都会干。

18   A(n)  virtual epidemic
acute shortage
serious campaign of... is now under way in this  country.
society.  According to a recent
new study
poll
survey , ...

   18.1 A virtual epidemic of pregnancies is under way in this nation's
teenage population. In 1993 alone 26270 babies were born to unwed teens.
Predictably, educators, parent groups and newspaper writers have responded
to this news with a clamor for more and better sex education. Indeed, that
is urgently necessary, but is sex education alone the whole answer?
   未婚少女怀孕,这一现象就像传染病一样正在该国蔓延开来。就1993年便有26270个
婴儿为未婚少女所生。可以预料教育工作
者、家长团体和报纸记者对此大声疾呼要加强和完善任教育。是的,这是非常必要的,
但仅仅靠性教育能解决问题吗?

19   Here and there
In city after city
At offices and plants across the  country
land , a(n)  growing
increasing
surprising
significant  number of....


   19.1 At offices and plants across the country, a growing number of
workers are jogging along the streets, playing tag-of-war, and doing
calisthenics on the pavements ------ all with the support and encouragement
of their employers. The company-sponsored physical-fitness programs are
benefiting both individuals and companies.
   从机关到工厂,越来越多的职工街上跑步,在人行道上拔河,做健身操。这些活动
都受到他们的领导的支持和鼓励。由工厂公司支持资助的健身活动不仅给职工个人,而
且对厂方都带来益处。

   19.2 Here and there across the country are coming reports that government
officials, even senior officials, have been punished for corruption. Some
were sentenced for taking bribes, others executed for embezzling funds. In
Beijing alone nearly 60000 civil servants were found guilty of corruption in
1993. Official corruption has increased greatly in the past five years in
only in scope but in magnitude.
   从各地传来报道,许多政府官员,甚至高级干部因腐败而受到惩罚。有的因受贿而
被判刑,有的因侵吞公款而被判处死刑。仅北
京在 1993年就有6万多官员因贪污、贿赂而被判罪。在过去5年里,政府官员的腐败在
范围和规模上都有很大的发展。

20  With the  rapid
amazing
marked  development /improvement /expansion of
increase /growth /decline in   .... /
20  With the  general
growing
common recognition / realization / acknowledge ment of
commitment / devotion / dedication to
interest in / concern over / enthusiasm for   .... /
20  With ...  playing an Increasingly big role in
attaching much importance to  ..., more and more

   20.1 With the prospect of coal and petroleum supplies being depleted and
with air pollution becoming an increasing concern, more and more countries
are now seeking alternative sources of energy. Among them is nuclear power
whose environmental advantages over coal and oil is increasingly recognized.
   随着煤和石油的供应逐渐耗尽,随着人们越来越关注环境的污染,越来越多的国家
正在寻找其它能源。而其中之一就是核能。与煤和石油相比,其不污染环境的优点正逐
渐被人们认识。

   20.2 With a domestic market of 12 billion increasingly prosperous
consumers and an economy that grows by an impressive 12--14 percent each
year, China is now becoming a huge magnet for more and more foreign business
corporations.
   随着一个有着12亿逐渐富裕起来的消费者的国内市场的形成和以每年12%到14%的速
度增长的经济的出现,中国正变成一个巨大的磁场,吸引着越来越多的外国公司。

21   Nowadays
Currently
Recently   there is a  growing / unhealthy tendency to / in / that
general / deep-seated belief in / that
general / uneasy feeling of / against / that
growing / nation-wide recognition of / that
growing / general awareness of / that
deep / serious concern over / for / that
deep / keen interest in
growing / great demand for
growing / great enthusiasm for / among sb  ...

   21.1 Now there is a growing concern over the heavy burden, both academic
and psychological, our children have to bear. After a day's study in school,
they bring a lot of assignments back home and work them until midnight. They
play few games and go to few movies. They have been so obsessed with grades
and marks that they have hardly had time to savor the life and grow as
well-rounded people.
   如今人们越来越关注我们的孩子所承受的沉重的学习负担和精神压力。在校学习一
天后,他们带回许多作业,常常做到深夜。他们很少玩或去看电影。他们为分数所累,
几乎没有时间品尝人生,并成长为一个全面发展的人。

   21.2 Nowadays there is an immense and justified pride in what our
colleges and universities have done. At the same time, however, there is a
growing uneasiness about their products. These young men and women who carry
away our degrees are attractive, energetic and eloquent. But what about
their intellectual equipment?
   现在人们对我们大学所做的一切非常自豪,这不是没有道理的。但是同时对它们的
产品——大学毕业生又愈来愈感到不安。那些得到学位的青年人个个神气十足,精神饱
满,能说会道。然而他们是否有真才实学呢?

   21.3 In the past decades there has been a persistent demand in many
countries for a conceited attack to deal with worldwide pollution. In many
places, under pressure from private citizens and leaders in science and
technology environmental organizations have sprung up to voice their
opinions and to try and face the problem. It is increasingly recognized that
pollution doesn't only pose a pervasive threat to the human environment, but
also challenge the survival of man himself.
   在过去的几十年里,许多国家都坚持不懈,要求共同努力来对付全球范围的污染。
在很多地方,鉴于平民百姓和科技界头面人物的压力,保护环境的组织纷纷出现。他们
一面提出各种建议,一面试图着导解决这个问题。人们越来越认识到污染不仅威胁到人
类环境,且危及人类自身的生存。

22 In recent few years
the past few decades , there is
has been a
22 sharp/ marked / sudden / dramatic increase / growth/ rise / decline in
astonishing / increasing / sizable number / percentage/ proportion /
population of
22 According to a(n) recent
new
official study
recent
survey
report
poll  , ...

   22.1 In recent years, there is an increasing number of people, especially
young people, who show little interest in correcting social inequalities and
injustices. According to a national poll last year, eighteen to
twenty-nine-year-olds agreed by large percentages that young people today
are "less idealistic" and "more selfish", and that they are less concerned
with the problems of society than with their own personal future.
   最近几年,越来越多的人,尤其是青年人,对纠正社会的不良倾向和不平等现象很
少关心了。根据去年一次全国性的民意测验,大多数18到29岁的青年人承认他们“不那
么有理想”“更加自私”,他们关心个人的将来胜过关心社会问题。

   22.2 In the past 5 years there has been a marked decline in the number of
young married couples who want to have children, coupled with a growing
trend toward delayed childbearing. According to official statistics, in
1993, about 28 percent of married couples with wives under 35 gave to birth
to children, compared with the 1983 level of 8 percent.
   在过去5年里,结婚后希望要孩子的青年夫妇人数明显减少,同时出切一种推迟生育
孩子的倾向。根据官方公布的数据,1993年有28%的已婚夫妇妻子在三十五岁以下而尚
未生育,而在1983年,只有8%。

23  Any visitor to this  city
country  ... would almost inevitably  deduce / draw his conclusion
be surprised / struck / impressed  by the fact....

   23.1 Any visitor to this city would be almost surprised by the severe
shortages and shortcomings in the elementary municipal services despite its
economic growth. Schools are old, hospitals are few and understaffed.
Transportation is overcrowded, and streets are narrow and filthy. Parks and
playgrounds are insufficient.
   任何一个到过这个城市的人都会因这个城市的最基本设施的严重不足和不良而感到
震惊。尽管这个城市的经济发展很快,学校却很陈旧;医院少且医务人员不足;交通拥
挤,道路狭窄而肮脏;公园及游乐场所也少得可怜。

24  Whenever you  see
find  ... you cannot help being  struck
surprised
astonished
disappointed
impressed  by ...
at ...

   24.1 Whenever we visit a terminally ill patient, we cannot help being
struck by his eagerness to know the truth about his condition. He does not
only suffer from his illness, but also from the anxiety about its potential
outcome. Although telling him the truth may risk destroying his hope, so
that he may deteriorate faster, perhaps even commit suicide, a dying person
has the right to know his condition and to make informed choice concerning
his own health.
   每当我们去探视一名患有不治之症的病人时,我们不禁为他那种急切想知道自己的
真实病情的表情所震动。他不仅被疾病所折磨,也被为自己的病情可能发展的结果而焦
虑所折磨。虽然若将真实病情告知他可能会使之失去希望从而加速病情恶化,甚至他
可能自寻短见,但一个濒临死亡的病人有权知道自己的病情,有权对自己的健康状况作
出明智的判断。

   24.2 Whenever we read suggestions of some recent scientific and econimic
research that the curves for food demand and food supply will cross in a
maximum of 60 years, and that by then, man's overpopulation, increasing
pollution, and the diminishing food supply could threaten to end human life
on our planet, we could not help wondering what steps man could take to
ensure his survival and avoid such extinction.
   近来一些科学和经济的研究表明,粮食供求平衡至多能保持用年。到那时、人口过
剩、污染加剧以及粮食供应减少将会威胁人类在地球上的生存。每当我们读到这些情
况,我们不禁在想:人类应当采取什么措施来确保自己的生存,避免灭绝呢?
 
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