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  3、 City-states (城邦) have been established in Italy in beginning from the 11th century. (来源:英语学习门户 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  4、 For two centuries beginning from the late 15th century, Florence was the golden city which gave girth to a whole generation of poets, scholars, artists and sculptors (雕塑家)。 There was in Florence a revival of interest in classical learning and rising of humanist ideas.

  二、What are the characteristics of Renaissance art?

  (How does Renaissance art differ from the other kinds of arts?)

  答:

  1、Art broke away from the domination of the church.

  2、Themes (主题) of paintings changed (变化) to an appreciation(鉴赏) of all aspects of nature and man.

  3、 The artists studied the ruins (毁灭) of Roman and Greek temples and put many of the principles (原则信念) of ancient civilization into their works. They began to be supported by individual collectors (私人收藏品)。

  4、Artists introduced (采用) in their works scientific theories of anatomy (解剖) and perspective (透视)。

  三、Why did Renaissance decline in Italy in the end?

  答:

  1、 The feuds (不合) of families, the conflicts of classes and the rivalry (竞争) between the city-states kept the economic structure of Italy in the traditional local order.(停滞不前)

  2、In world trade Italy had lost its supremacy (优势) because of the discovery of America in 1492 and the rounding (环绕) of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, the opening of an all-water route (全线贯通) to India which provided (供应) a cheaper means of transport.

  单成选择题:Which of the following is not the course for Italy to lose its favorable position?

  3、 The Protestant (新教徒) reformation forced (强迫) the Roman Catholic Church to tighten (拉紧) its control over thought, speech and publication.(语言和出版)

  4、 One after another the cradles (摇篮) of Italian Renaissance, Florence, Venice, Naples, Milan were pillaged (掠夺) and devastated (毁坏) in the Italian Wars. Spain, France and England fought for the control of its resources(资源)。

  5、from the above, it can be concluded that Renaissance finally declined in Italy due to the reason of different kinds.

  ① War ② Foreign trade ③ Position ④ Wars with the other country

  五、How did capitalism rise and develop in Europe?

  答:

  1、Protestantism was prepared for capitalist development.

  2、Imagination, creation and free thinking (思维)。

  3、Calvinism. 4、Navigation (航海) and the discoveries of new lands.

  5、Renaissance. 6、Reformation.

  六、What is the great significance of the reformation?

  (What positive influence does the reformation exert on world culture?)

  答:

  1、 The Roman Catholic Church was never the international court (法院) to which all rulers and states were to be morally (道德的) responsible for.

  2、Economically, peasants (农民) all over Europe had no need to pay a good amount (量) of their gains (利益) to the Pope.

  3、In educational and cultural matters, the monopoly (垄断) of the church was broken.

  4、 In religion, Protestantism brought into being different forms of Christianity to challenge (挑战) the absolute rule of the Roman Catholic Church.

  5、In language, the dominant position of Latin had to give way to (为…让步) the national languages as a result of various (不同的) translations of the Bible into the vernacular.

  6、In spirit, absolute obedience (盲从) became out-moded (不复存在) and the spirit of quest (探索), debate (争论), was ushered in by the reformists.(凡事都要问为什么的精神)

  七、Why do we say renaissance came to England very late, but in England renaissance reached its climax?

  答:

  1、The war of Roses and Its weak and unimportant position in world trade.

  2、It was to produce some towering figures (顶级人物) in the English. William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, Sir Thomas More.

  3、 The Reign of Elizabeth I was a period of political and religious stability (稳定) on the one hand and economic prosperity (繁荣) on the other. England began to embark (从事) on the road to colonization (殖民扩张) and foreign control that was to take it onto its heyday (鼎盛) of capitalist development.

  八、What are the Geographical Discoveries (航海大发现) in the Renaissance?

  答:

  The Renaissance was the golden age of geographical discoveries: by the year of 1600 the surface of the known earth was doubled (两倍)。

  1、Columbus:

  Columbus discovered the land of America. On his fourth voyage (航行) he explored (探测) the coast (海岸) of Central America(中美洲)。

  2、Dias:

  Dias was a Portuguese navigator (领航员) who discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1487.

  3、Da Gama:

  Gama was a Portuguese navigator, who discovered the route (路线) to India round the Cape of Good Hope between the years of 1497 and 1498.

  4、Amerig (亚美利哥)

  Amerigo was the Italian navigator on whose honour (给某人) America was named. His discovered and explored the mouth of the Amazon (亚马逊河) and accepted South America as a new continent.(新大陆)

  九、What contribution did the Renaissance make to the world culture?

  答:

  1、 The Renaissance created a culture which freed man to discover and enjoy the world in a way not possible under the medieval Church‘s dispensation.

  2、The Reformation dealt the feudal theocracy a fatal blow. (给…以致命打击)

  第五章

   1、The first time to look at men‘s place in the Universe started in the 17th century.

  2、In modernism, men‘s position in the universe was looked at in a fresh new way.

  3、 The outlook (世界观) of educated men was transformed. There was a profound (深远的) change in the conception (概念) of men‘s place in the universe.(人在宇宙中的位置)

 
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