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  13、Michelangelo - David

  - Sistine Chapel (from the First book of the Bible, the Genesis ) (来源:EnglishCN.com)

  - Dying Slave (垂死的奴隶)

  - Moses (摩西)

  14、Raphael was best known for his Madonna. (圣母玛利亚)

  15、He painted his Madonnas in different postures (姿势), against (*) different backgrounds.

  16、One of the famous paintings besides the Madonnas is School of Athens (雅典学派)。 Plato and Aristotle engaged (使用) in argument.

  17、Titian - The Venus of Urbino (断臂的维纳斯)

  Man with the Glove (带手套的人) ☆

  18、John Wyclif - translation of the Bible into English for the first time.

  19、Jan Hus - Czech

  - in Czech language

  20、Martin Luther - translation of the whole Bible with the vernacular language.

  21、The reformation get it‘s victory first in England.

  22、Reformation名词解释The Reformation was a 16th century religious movement as well as (同时) a socio-political (社会政治) movement. It began as Martin Luther posted on the door of the castle church at the University of Wittenberg (机智) his 95 thesis (论题)。 This movement which swept over (席卷了) the whole of Europe was aimed at opposing (反对) the absolute authority (权威) of the Roman Catholic Church and replacing (代替) it with the absolute authority of the Bible. The reformists (改革者) engaged (使用) themselves in translating the Bible into their mother tongues. 宗教改革的实质是:反对罗马天主教,直接形式是用母语翻译圣经

  23、Calvinism名词解释Calvinism was established by Calvin in the period of Renaissance. Presbyterian government (长老会)。 Only those specially elected by God can be saved (上帝的选民) . This belief serves so well to help the rising bourgeoisie on its path (有助于资本主义的兴起)。

  24、The national religion established after reformation in England was called The church of England or The Anglican Church.

  25、It was under the reign (统治) of Henry Ⅷ that reformation was successful in England.

  26、The English Bible was adopted (采纳) in England after Reformation.

  27、Counter-Reformation (反宗教改革)名词解释

  By late 1520 the Roman Catholic Church had lost its control over the church in Germany.

  The Roman Catholic Church did not stay idle (坐以待毙)。 They mustered (召集) their forces, the dedicated (专用的) Catholic groups, to examine the Church institutions and introduce reforms and improvements (改良), to bring back its vitality (活力)。 This recovery of power is often called by historians the Counter-Reformation.

  28、The Jesuits (耶稣社团)名词解释 Ignatius (拼写)

  Ignatius and his followers called themselves the Jesuits, members of the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits went through strict (严格的) spiritual training (精神训练) and organized (有组织的) their own colleges to train selected youth who would be centre of their influence in the next generation.

  29、Francis Bacon introduced Montaigne “Essais” into the English literature.

  30、Montaigne was a French humanist known for his “Essais”(Essays)。

  31、 The representative author of Renaissance in France was Montaigne with his famous work Essais. The representative novelist of Renaissance in Spain was Cervantes with his famous work Do Quixote, which marked European culture entry into a new stage. (歧视文学作品)

  32、Art Greco - counter-reformation (反宗教改革的代表)

  - the Baroque-treatment (巴洛克)

  - The Burial of Count Orgaz (伯爵的葬礼) 典型的反宗教改革

  33、Renaissance in Germany: Dürer - The Four Horsemen of Apocalpse

  - Knight, Death and the Devil

  34、到达英国晚的原因:The war of Roses and Its weak and unimportant position in world trade.

  35、达到高潮的第一个原因:It was to produce some towering figures (顶级人物) in the English.

  William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, Sir Thomas More.

  达到高潮的第二个原因:The Reign of Elizabeth I was a period of political and religious stability (稳定) on the one hand and economic prosperity (繁荣) on the other. ☆

  36、England began to embark (从事) on the road to colonization (殖民扩张) and foreign control that was to take it onto its heyday (鼎盛) of capitalist development.

  37、William Shakespeare

  悲剧 —→ Hamlet (哈姆雷特), Othello (奥赛罗), King Lear (李尔王), Macbeth (麦克白)

  喜剧 —→ As You Like It and Twelfth Night (第十二夜)

  38、悲剧上的特点:① astonishing variety in presentment (表现上的多样性)

  ② dramatic movement (戏剧上的时刻)

  ③ in characterization (人物的个性化)

  乔叟中具有个性化的是女性39、Shakespeare‘s comedies prove Shakespeare to be a great humanist writer.

  40、喜剧表现出的 between humanists and feudal and capitalist reality.

  41、Copernicus (哥白尼): —→ Centric (日心说)

  42、Which was proved by Kepler and Galieo? Centric (日心说)

  43、Dante: The equality (平等) of the divine (神) power and the secular (世俗) power.(Satan)

  44、Machiavelli —→ Father of political science.(Prince诸侯论 Discourses演讲篇)

  45、美国小说之父 —→ 马克吐温

  英国小说之父 —→ 费尔丁

  英国诗歌之父 —→ 乔叟

  论述简答

    一、Why do we say Renaissance first came to Italy?

  (what propositions先决条件 were there in Italy for renaissance to flourish??

  What priorities优势 were there in Italy for renaissance to flourish?)

  答:

  1、 Because of its geographical position (有利的地理位置), foreign trade developed early in Italy. This brought Italy into contact with other cultures and gave rise to (有推动力) urban (城市的) economy and helped Italy to accumulated wealth (积累财富)。

  2、 Beginning from the 11th century, cities began to rise in central (中) and north (北) Italy. But there existed (存在) rivalry (竞争) among the cities and they were constantly (不变的) at war with each other.

 
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