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  ① He was crowned “Emperor of the Romans” by the pope in 800. (来源:老牌的英语学习网站 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  ② Carolingian Renaissance is derived from Charlemagne‘s name in Latin, Carolus. The most interesting facet (一面) of this rather minor renaissance is the spectacle (有见解) of Frankish or Germanic state reaching out to assimilate (吸收) the riches of the Roman Classical and the Christianized Hebraic culture.

  2、Alfred the Great and Wes*** Centre of Learning: (阿尔伏雷德大帝和威克萨斯王国)

  ① He promoted (奖励) translations into the vernacular from Latin works.

  ② He also inspired (授意) the compilation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. (编年史)

  3、St. Thomas Aquinas and Scholasticism: (经院主义,保守主义的雏形)

  4、Roger Bacon and Experimental Science: (实用主义)

  ① Roger Bacon, a monk, was one of the earliest advocates of scientific research. (最早的支持者) 亚里士多德最早提出

  ② He called for careful observation (观察) and experimentation. His main work was the Opus maius.

  六、How did literature develop in the middle ages?

  答:

  1、 The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is, the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics. Both Beowulf and song of Roland were the representative works of the National Epics.

  2、Dante Alighieri and The Divine Comedy: (但丁与神曲)

  ① His masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, is one of the landmarks of world literature.

  ② The poem expresses humanistic ideas which foreshadowed (预示) the spirit of Renaissance.

  ③ Dante wrote his masterpiece in Italian rather than in Latin. (只用意大利语创作)

  3、Geoffery Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales: (乔叟与坎特布雷集)

  ① The Canterbury Tales were his most popular work.

  ② Most of the tales are written in verse (诗) which reflects(反映) Chaucer‘s innovation (改革) by introducing into the native alliterative verse (压头韵诗) the French and Italian styles.

  ③ Chaucer is thus to be , regarded as (被看作) the first short story teller and the first modern poet in English literature.短篇写作第一人

  ④ Chaucer and the Canterbury Tales were representative of the Middle ages.

  七、 What is the difference between the vernacular language used in the National epics and the vernacular language used by Mark twain? (重点☆)

  答:

  1、 The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is, the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics. Both Beowulf and song of Roland were the representative works of the National Epics.

  2、The vernacular (方言) language used by Mark twain refers to both local and colloq (地方式俗语) language used in the Mississippi area, with a strong characteristic of that region (地区) .Mark twain used vernacular language not only in dialogue, but also in narration. (叙述)

  3、His representative works Life on the Mississippi.

  第四章

    1、 Renaissance名词解释

  Generally speaking, Renaissance refers to the period between the 14th and mid-17th century. The word “Renaissance” means revival (复兴), specifically in this period of history, revival of interest in ancient Greek and Roman culture. Renaissance, in essence (从实质上讲), was a historical period in which the European humanist thinkers and scholars made attempts (试图) to get rid of conservatism (保守主义思想) in feudalist Europe and introduce new ideas that expressed the interests of the rising bourgeoisie (资产阶级), to lift the restrictions (禁忌) in all areas placed by the Roman church authorities.(权利威信)

  2、 Generally speaking, Renaissance refers to the period between the 14th and mid-17th century.

  3、 Renaissance started in Florence and Venice with the flowering of paintings, sculpture (雕塑) and architecture. 最早开始于painting

  4、 Florence was the golden city which gave girth to a whole generation of poets, scholars, artists and sculptors (雕塑家)。

  5、 In Renaissance literature of Italy, Petrarch (彼得拉克) was the representative poet.

  6、 Intellectuals became closely tied up (息息相关) with the rising bourgeoisie.

  (人文主义兴起的重要原因 Humanistic ideas to develop)

  7、 At the heart of the Renaissance philosophy was the assertion of the greatness of man.

  (以人为本—人文主义的核心)

  8、 Literature: The idea of the greatness of man is reflected in Shakespeare‘s literature.

  9、 painting: The idea of the greatness of man is reflected in Da vincci‘s Mona Lisa.

  10、Renaissance Art名词解释

  A radical (根本的) break with medieval (中古的) methods of representing the visible (可见的) world occurred (发生) in Italy during the second half of the 13th century. It was not until the second decade (十年) of the 15th century that there was a decided break with the medieval pictorial tradition (田园式风格)。

  11、Last Supper adapted from the New Testament of the Bible.

  12、Mona Lisa - model wife of a banker.

  - the ambiguity of the smile. (永恒的微笑)

 
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