24、There were altogether eight chief Crusades. (来源：英语杂志 http://www.EnglishCN.com)
25、 (结束) By 1291 the Moslems (穆斯林) had taken over the last Christian stronghold. They won the crusades and ruled all the territory in Palestine that the Crusaders had fought to control.
Carolingian Renaissance is derived from Charlemagne‘s name in Latin， Carolus. The most interesting facet (一面) of this rather minor renaissance is the spectacle (有见解) of Frankish or Germanic state reaching out to assimilate (吸收) the riches of the Roman Classical and the Christianized Hebraic culture.
27、Roger Bacon‘s work was the Opus maius.
The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is， the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics.
29、Chaucer (乔叟) 的诗歌特点： ① power of observation (观察)
② piercing irony (敏锐的讽刺) ③ sense of humour ④ warm humanity (温暖的人性)
与狄更斯相似30、Gothic名词解释① The Gothic style started in France and quickly spread through all parts of Western Europe.
② It lasted from the mid-12th to the end of 15th century and， in some areas， into the 16th. More churches were built in this manner than in any other style in history.
③ The Gothic was an outgrowth (丰富与发展) of the Romanesque.(罗马式)
31、The Canterbury Tales：
① The Canterbury Tales was written by Chaucer.
② Chaucer introduced French and Italy writing the English native alliterative verse.(压头韵)
③ Both Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales are the best representative of the middle English.
一、In the middle ages， what cultures began to merge (融合)？
Classical， Hebrew and Gothic heritages merged (文化融合)。 It paved the way for the development of what is the present-day European culture.中世纪为现代欧洲文化铺平道路
二、Why is the middle ages is called Age of Faith (信仰的年代)？名词解释和简答
1、 During the Medieval (中世纪) times there was no central (中央的) government to keep the order. The only organization that seemed to unite (团结) Europe was the Christian church.
2、The Christian church continued to gain (赢得) widespread (普及的) power and influence.
3、 In the Late middle ages， almost everyone in western Europe was a Christian and a member of the Christian Church. Christianity took the lead in politics， law， art， and learning (思想领域) for hundreds of years.
4、It shaped (形成) people‘s lives. That is why the middle ages is also called the “Age of Faith”。
三、How did Feudalism develop in Europe in middle ages？
1、 feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land holding (土地所有) — a system of holding land in exchange for military service (军事力量)。 The word “feudalism” was derived (来源) from the Latin “feudum”， a grant (许可的) of land.
2、In order to seek the protection of large land-owners， the people of small farms or land gave their farms and land to large land-owners， but they still had freedom， they were called freemen.
3、While the people from towns and cities did not possess farms or land. They had nothing but their freedom to be given to large land-owners， and then they lost their freedom for protection. They were called serfs.
4、In Feudalism， the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs. The owners of the fiefs was call vassals.
5、There came a form of local and decentralized (分散化的) government.
6、 As a knight， he were pledged to protect the weak， to fight for the church， to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of chivalry， from which the western idea of good manners developed.
四、What positive influence does the Crusades exert on the European Culture？
(What is the great significance of the Crusades？)
1、 The crusades brought the East into closer contact with the West. And they greatly influenced the history of Europe. (拉近了东西方的交流)
2、During the wars while many of the feudal lords went to fight in Palestine， kings at home found opportunities (机会) to strengthen (加强) themselves. Thus among other things， Crusades helped to break down feudalism， which， in turn led to the rise of the monarchies. (取而代之的是君主专制) 霍布斯主张君主专制
3、 Besides， through their contact with the more cultured Byzantines and Moslems， the western Europeans changed many of their old ideas. Their desire (期望) for wealth or power began to overshadow (战胜) their religious ideals.
4、The Crusades also resulted in renewing people‘s interest in learning and invention. By the 13th century， universities had spread all over Europe. Such knowledge as Arabic numerals (阿拉伯数字)， algebra (代数)， and Arab medicine (医学) were introduced to the West.
5、 As trade increased， village and towns began to grow into cities. And the rise of towns and trade in western Europe paved the way of the growth of strong national governments. (民族政府)
五、How did learning and science develop in the Middle Ages？
1、Charlemagne and Carolingian Renaissance： (查理曼的文艺复兴)