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  答:

  1、 The oldest extant (现存的) Greek translation of the Old Testament is known as the Septuagint. And it is still in use in the Greek Church today. But it only translated the Old Testament. (来源:专业英语学习网站 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  2、The most ancient extant Latin version of the whole Bible is the Vulgate edition, which was done in 385-405 A.D. By St. Jerome in common people‘s language. It became the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church throughout the world.

  3、 The first English version of whole Bible was translated from the Latin Vulgate in 1382 and was copied out by hand by the early group of reformers (改革者) led by John Wycliff.

  4、After John Wycliff‘s version, appeared William Tyndale’s version. It was based on the original Hebrew and Greek sources.来源

  5、 The Great Bible (大圣经) ordered by Henry Ⅷ in 1539 to be placed in all the English churches was in part founded on Tyndale‘s work.

  6、The most important and influential of English Bible is the “Authorized”(官方版圣经) or “King James” version, first published in 1611. It was produced by 54 biblical scholars at the command of King James. With its simple, majestic (高雅的) Anglo-Saxon tongue, it is known as the greatest book in the English languages.

  7、The Revised Version appeared in 1885, and the standard American edition of the Revised Version in 1901. (美国英语版)

  8、The Good News Bible and the New English Bible.

  四、What is the great significance of the translations of the bible?

  (What are the great influences that the English Bible has on the American and British literature?)

  答:

  1、It is generally accepted that the English Bible and Shakespeare are two great reservoirs (水库) of Modern English.

  2、 Miltion‘s Paradise Lost (失乐园), Bunyan’s Pilgrim‘s Progress, Byron’s Cain, up to the contemporary (同时期的) Hemingway‘s The Sun Also Rises, and Steinbeck’s East of Eden. They are not influenced without the effect of the Bible.

  第三章

   1、the Middle ages名词解释

  In European history, the thousand-year period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century is called the Middle Ages.
 
  2、The middle ages is so called because it came between ancient times and modern times. To be specific (具体说来), from the 5th century to 15th century.

  3、The transitional (过渡时期) period is called the middle ages, between ancient times and modern times.

  4、The transitional (过渡时期) period is called the 17th century, between the middle ages and modern times.

  5、In 476 A.D. a Germanic (日耳曼) general killed the last Roman emperor and took control of the government. 西罗马476灭,东罗马1653年灭

  6、Feudalism名词解释Feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land holding (土地所有) — a system of holding land in exchange for military service (军事力量)。 The word “feudalism” was derived (来源) from the Latin “feudum”, a grant (许可的) of land.

  7、fiefs(次划分)名词解释In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs.

  8、vassals (占有fiefs的人)名词解释

  In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs. The owners of the fiefs was call vassals.

  9、code of chivalry (骑士制度)名词解释

  As a knight, he were pledged to protect the weak, to fight for the church, to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of chivalry, from which the western idea of good manners developed.

  10、dubbing (骑士头衔加冕仪式)名词解释

  After a knight was successful in his trained and tournaments, there was always a special ceremony (选择) to award him with a title, knight. This special ceremony is called dubbing.

  11、knight trained for war by fighting each other in mock battles called tournaments.(模拟战场)

  12、The crusades ended up with the victory of Moslems.(穆斯林)

  13、The Manor (领地所有制)名词解释

  The centre of medieval life under feudalism was the manor. Manors were founded on the fiefs of the lords (农场主)。 By the twelfth century manor houses were made of stone and designed as fortresses. They came to be called castles.

  14、After 1054, the church was divided into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

  15、 The Catholic Church made Latin the official language and helped to preserve (保留) and pass on the heritage (传统) of the Roman Empire.

  16、The word “catholic”, meant “universal”。(广泛的,无处不在的)

  17、St. Jerome, who translated into Latin both Old and New Testament from the Hebrew and Greek originals. Vulgate (拉丁语圣经)

  18、Early Monasticism (早期修道院制)名词解释

  Between 300 and 500 A.D., many men withdrew from (放弃了) worldly contacts to deserts and lonely places. This movement developed into the establishment of monasteries (男) and convents (女) for monks and nuns. Some of the hermits (隐士) were great scholars known as “Father of the Church”, whose work is generally considered orthodox.(东正教)

  19、Augustine —→ “Confession” (坦白) and “The City of God” (上帝之都)

  20、St. Benedict —→ founded Benedictine Rule about 529 A.D. (专门给清修的人制定的法律)

  21、The Inquisition (问讯厅) to stamp out so-called heresy.异教

  22、The most important of all courses was Jerusalem. (耶路撒冷)

  23、Crusades went on about 200 years.

 
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