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  1、Spirit of innovation创新精神

  The Greek people invented mathematics and science and philosophy; They first wrote history as opposed反对 to mere纯粹的 annals历史记载; They speculated思索 freely about the nature of the world and the ends of life生命的轮回, without being bound in the fetters束缚 of any inherited orthodoxy.继承的习俗 (来源:EnglishCN.com)

  2、Supreme Achievement至高无上的成就

  The Greeks achieved supreme achievements in nearly all fields of human endeavour努力: Philosophy, science, epic poetry, comedy, historical writing, architecture, etc.

  3、Lasting effect持续的影响

  ①Countless无数的 writers have quoted举例, borrowed from and otherwise used Homer‘s epics, the tragedies of Aeschylus and Sophocles and Euripides, Aristophanes’s comedies, Plato‘s Dialogues,ect.

  ②In the early part of the 19th century, in England alone, three young Romantic poets expressed their admiration of Greek culture in works which have themselves become classics经典之作: Byron‘s Isles of Greece, Shelley’s Hellas and Prometheus Unbound and Keats‘s Ode on a Grecian Urn.

  ③In the 20th century, there are Homeric parallels与…平行 in the Irishman爱尔兰 James Joyce‘s modernist masterpiece代表作 Ulysses.

  七、What is the similarity and difference between Greek culture and Roman culture?

  答:

  1、similarity① Both peoples had traditions rooted in the idea of the citizen-assembly.

  ② Their religions were alike enough for most of their deities(神) to be readily(容易的) identified (一致), and their myths (崇拜的神) to be fused.(融合)

  ③ Their languages worked in similar ways, both being members of the Indo-European language family.

  2、difference① The Romans built up a vast (巨大的) empire; the Greeks didn‘t, except for the brief (短暂的) moment of Alexander’s conquests, which soon disintegrated.(瓦解)

  ② The Romans were confident(自信的) in their own organizational power, their military and administrative capabilities.(管理国家的能力)

  八、What is the Rome historical background?

  答:

  1、 The history of Rome divided into two periods: Before the year 27 B.C., Rome had been a republic; from the year 27 B.C., Octavius took supreme (最大的) power as emperor with the title of Augustus and Roman Empire began.

  2、Two centuries later, the Roman Empire reached its climax, marked by land area‘s extension: Encircling (环绕) the Mediterranean.(地中海)

  3、Strong military power: the famous Roman legions.

  4、 In the Roman history ,there came two hundred years of peaceful time, which was guaranteed(保证) by the Roman legions, it was known as Pax Romana.

  5、Another important contribution made by the Romans to European culture was Roman Law.

  6、The empire began to decline in the 3rd century.选择

  ① In the 4th century the emperor Constantine moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium. Renamed it Constantinople (modern Istanbul)。

  ② After 395 (分裂时间), the empire was divided into East (The Byzantine Empire) and West

  ③ In 476 the last emperor of the West was deposed by Goths and this marked the end of the West Roman Empire.

  ④ The East Roman Empire collapsed (崩溃) when Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453. (英法百年战争结束)

  第二章

    1、Christianity is by far the most influential in the West. 在西方最具影响力的宗教

  2、Judeo-Christian tradition constitutes one of the two major components of European culture: Judaism and Christianity.

  3、The Jewish tradition, which gave birth to Christianity. (犹太教是基督教的前身) Both originated in Palestine, which was known as Canaan.

  4、The ancestors of the Jews — the Hebrews. 犹太人的祖先是希伯来人

  5、They called “Hebrews”, which means “wanderers”。商旅

  6、About 1300 B.C., the Hebrews came to settle (定居) in Palestine.

  7、The Hebrews history was recorded in the Old Testament of the Bible.

  8、The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament.

  9、The Old Testament is about God and the Laws of God. 上帝与上帝的教义

  10、The New Testament is about the doctrine (教义) of Jesus Christ.

  11、The New Testament is, in essence (实质上), the four accounts (四福音书), written by the four disciples.弟子

  12、The word “Testament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

  13、Bible is representative of Christianity and 新旧约

  14、The Old Testament名词解释

  The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. The Old Testament is about God and the Laws of God. The word “Testament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

  15、The New Testament名词解释

  The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. The New Testament is about the doctrine (教义) of Jesus Christ. The word “Testament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

  16、The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are the first five books, called Pentateuch.摩西五经

  17、Pentateuch名词解释The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are the first five books, called Pentateuch. Pentateuch contains five books: Genesis (创世记), Exodus (出埃及记), Leviticus(教义记), Numbers (逃亡记), Deuteronomy (摩西遗言记)。

  18、Genesis名词解释Genesis is one of the five books in Pentateuch, it tells about a religious account (描述) of the origin of the Hebrews people, including the origin of the world and of man, the career (经历) of Issac and the life of Jacob and his son Joseph.

 
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