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  43、The embodiment of Greek democracy is citizen-assembly. 古希腊民主的具体形式 (来源:老牌的英语学习网站 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  论述简答

  一、What is the limitation of “Democracy” in ancient Greece?(名解简答)

  (How do you understand “Democracy” in ancient Greece? What is the difference between “Democracy” in ancient Greece and modern democracy?)

  答:

  ① Democracy means “exercise of power by the whole people”, but in Greece by “the whole people” the Greeks meant only the adult male citizens.

  ② Women, children, foreigners and slaves were excluded from Democracy.

  二、How did the Greek Culture originate and develop?

  答:

    ① Probably around 1200 B.C., a war was fought between Greece and troy. This is the war that Homer refers to in his epics.

  ② Greek culture reached a high point of development in the 5th century B.C.

  A. The successful repulse of the Persian invasion (入侵) early in the 5th century.

  B. The establishment of democracy.

  C. The flourishing (蒸蒸日上的) of science, philosophy, literature, art and historical writing in Athens.

  ③ The 5th century closed with civil war between Athens and Sparta.

  ④ In the second half of the 4th century B.C., Greece was conquered by Alexander, king of Macedon. Whenever he went and conquered, whenever Greek culture was found.

  ⑤ Melting between Greek culture and Roman culture in 146 B.C., the Romans conquered Greece.

  三、How did the Ancient Greek philosophy develop?

  答:

  (1)、Three founders

  1、Pythagoras① All things were numbers.

  ② Scientific mathematics.

  ③ Theory of proportion.比例的理论

  2、Heracleitue① Fire is the primary(主要的) elements of the universe.火是万物之源

  ② The theory of the mingling of opposites produced harmony.矛盾的对立统一

  3、Democritus① the atomic theory.第一个原子理论开拓者

  ② materialism.唯物主义

  (2)、Three thinkers

  1、Socrates①He hadn‘t works. We can know him from Plato’s dialogues.

  ②The dialectical method was established by Socrates.

  2、Plato①The Academy is the first school in the world, it was established by Plato.

  ②He has four works. Dialogues, Apology, Symposium and Republic.

  3、Aristotle①The Lyceum is the second school in the world, it was established by Aristotle.

  ②Aristotle is a humanist.

  (2)、Five contending schools

  1、The Sophists诡辩派

  ①Under the leadership of Protagoras.

  ②The representative of work is On the God.诸神论

  ③His doctrine教义 is “man is the measure of all things”。人是衡量一切的标准

  2、The Cynics犬儒派

  ①Under the leadership of Diogenes.

  ②The word “cynic” means “dog” in English.

  ③He proclaimed宣扬 his brotherhood. And he had no patience with the rich and powerful.权利

  3、The Sceptics置疑学派

  ①Under the leadership of Pyrrhon.

  ②His thought is not all knowledge was attainable可获得的, and doubting the truth of what others accepted as true.

  4、The Epicureans享乐派

  ①Under the leadership of Epicurus. 选择:根据领导者的名字直接命名

  ②Pleasure to be the highest good in life but not sensual肉欲 enjoyment.享乐

  Pleasure could be attained by the practice of virtue.通过实行道德获得

  Epicurus was a materialist. He believed that the world consisted of atoms.原子

  5、The Stoics斯多哥派

  ①Under the leadership of Zeno.

  ②His thought is duty is the most important thing in life.

  One should endure忍受 hardship艰难 and misfortune不幸 with courage.勇气

  Developed into Stoics‘ duty.

  He was also a materialist.

  四、What philosophy system did Plato established?

  (Why do we say Plato‘s philosophy system was idealistic? Do you think Plato built up a comprehensive综合的 system of philosophy? )

  答:

  1、It dealt with, among other things, the problem of how, in the complex, ever—changing world, men were to attain获得 knowledge.

  2、The first case and physical自然 world should take the secondary case.

  3、Idealistic of philosophy.

  4、Many of Plato‘s ideas were later absorbed into Christian thought. (吸收到基督教的思想中)

  五、What‘s the difference between Plato and Aristotle in terms of their philosophical ideas(system)?

  答:

  1、 For one thing, Aristotle emphasized(强调) direct observation of nature and insisted that theory should follow fact.(理论联系实际)This is different from Plato‘s reliance(依赖) on subjective thinking.(万物依赖主观思维)

  2、For another, he thought that “form” and matter together made up concrete(具体的) individual(个别的) realities. (物质与意识共同构成的客观事实)Here, too, he differed from Plato who held that ideas had a higher reality than the physical world(意识高于物质)

  3、Aristotle thought happiness was men‘s aim in life. But not happiness in the vulgar庸俗的 sense, but something that could only be achieved by leading a life of reason, goodness and contemplation.(善良和期待)

  一句话简答题What should be man‘s aim in life?

  Aristotle‘s answer was: happiness.

  六、What is the great significance of Greek Culture on the later-on cultural development?

  (What positive influence did the Greek Culture exert运用 on the world civilization文化?)

  答:

  There has been an enduring excitement兴奋 about classical经典的 Greek culture in Europe and elsewhere别处。Rediscovery of Greek culture played a vital有生命力的 part in the Renaissance in Italy and other European countries.

 
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