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  2、Greatest creative renaissance of the 20th century refers to modernism. (来源:老牌的英语学习网站 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  3、 The term “modernist” is usually reserved for more experimental and innovative modern works, those that view experience in new ways and adopt new forms.

  (Modernist不是指现代主义者,而是指现代主义艺术作品)

  4、Id名词解释Freud divided human personality into three functional parts — Id, Ego and Superego. The Id is the container (容器) of the instinctual urges (本能的主张)。 It is the unconscious (无意识的) part of mind, which seeks (查找) immediate (即刻的) satisfaction of desires (欲望)。 Id is concerned with what a person wants to do.

  5、Ego名词解释Freud divided human personality into three functional parts — Id, Ego and Superego. Ego is the rational (理性的), thoughtful (深思的), realistic personality process. It is characterized by a desire for independence (独立的), autonomy (自发的) and self-direction. Ego is concerned with ability.

  6、Ego名词解释Freud divided human personality into three functional parts — Id, Ego and Superego. Superego is the idealized (理想化的) image that a person builds of himself in response (反映,响应) to authority (权威) and social pressures (压力)。

  7、Oedipus Complex名词解释

  Oedipus Complex is a Freudian term originating from a Greek tragedy, in which King Oedipus unknowingly killed his father and married his mother. Oedipus Complex was established by Freud.

  8、The Lost generation名词解释

  The Lost generation refers to a group of young intellectuals (知识分子) who came back from war, were injured (受伤害) both physically (身体上) and mentally (精神上)。 They lived by indulging (放任) themselves in the Bohemian (波西米亚) way of life. Their American dream was disillusioned (破灭了)。 The best representative of the lost generation was Ernest Hemingway.

  9、The Beat Generation名词解释 垮掉的一代

  The Beat Generation in America refers to a group of American youngsters (儿童) who refused to accept “respectability” and conventional (传统的) social behaviour and who cultivated (培养) a rootless manner of living. The distinctive features (有特色的特征) of the Beat Generation is that they used a special slang language and loved jazz. The Beat Generation was represented by Ginsberg‘s Howl (嚎叫)

  and Jack Keroual‘s on the road.

  10、Angry Young Men名词解释 年轻愤怒的一代

  Angry Young Men was a term referring to a group of English writers who found themselves to be social misfits (不能适应环境的人)。 They felt they were socially stateless (无政府状态)。 Even though they were university graduates. They were very sensitive (敏感) to the undesirable (讨厌的人) things of the society. Angry Young Men was represented by John Osborne‘s play Look Back in Anger (愤怒问题) and Amis’ novel Lucky Jim.

  11、Nouveau Roman名词解释 新小说主义

  Nouveau Roman refers to some 20th –century French novels. The term Nouveau Roman came into being with the publication (发表) of some essays (短文) by Grillet (新小说主义源于他), a French writer. The New Novel tends to be objective (客观的)。 Human characters are on an equal footing (地位) with things. The New Novelists try to avoid taking sides (走极端) when they come to the description of characters, making no distinction (不加以区别) between good and bad or between important and trivial (平凡)。 Therefore, their characters are often shapeless (无形状态) and sometimes even nameless (没有姓名)。

  12、Existentialism名词解释 存在主义

  Existentialism is a philosophy (哲学倾向) that became a self-conscious movement (自发的运动) in the 20th century. Its basic concern is human existence (人的存在)。 A key concept (关键概念) of existentialism is that man is only what he makes of himself. Existentialism in literature was represented by Bernard Shaw‘s problem plays. And Sartre’s (萨达尔) Being and Nothingness (存在与虚无)。

  13、The Theatre of the absurd名词解释 荒诞剧

  The Theatre of the absurd is a term referring to the works of some European, particularly French, playwrights (剧作家) of the 1950s and 60s. The word “absurd” originated from the works of Camus (加谬斯)。 The play writers of the Theatre of the absured employed (被使用) many techniques used by the popular theatre such as: acrobatics (杂技)。 Their language is very often dislocated (错位), with plenty of jargon (行话), clichés (老生常谈) and repetitions (反复使用)。 The Theatre of the Absurd of represented by Beckett‘s (贝克特) waiting for Godot (等待哥达)。

  14、Black Humour名词解释

  Black Humour is a term derived (源于) from Black Comedy. Its origin can be traced back to Shakespeare‘s time. But now the term (术语) is usually used to refer to some Western, especially American Post-World WarⅡ writers. Black humour is kind of desperate humour (会让人产生绝望的幽默)。 In Black humour, man’s fate is decided by incomprehensible powers. (人的命运自有安排) Black humour was represented by Joseph Heller‘s Catch-22.

  15、Fauvism名词解释 野兽派

  The Fauvism expressed their emotional reaction to the subject in the boldest colour and strongest pattern of lines (表现强烈的情感)。 They preferred this to objective representation. (支持主观反对客观) In this way the Fauves freed colour from its tradition. (解放了传统对色彩的束缚)

  16、Expressionism名词解释Expressionist art is marked by the expression of reality (对现实的意志) by means of distortion (扭曲) to communicate one‘s inner vision (内部观察)。 The artists of this school used bright colours to bring out their pessimistic views on life (对生活的悲观态度)。 They showed a world of subconsciousness (下意识的世界)。

  17、Rontgen —→ the discovery of X-rays

  18、Pierre and Marie Curie (皮埃尔与居里夫人) —→ the discovery of radium (镭)

 
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