42、Dickens reflects the history of the French Revolution. (来源：英语学习门户 http://www.EnglishCN.com)
43、George Eliot (乔治。艾略特) —→ Middlemarch (米德马其)
—→ The Mill on the Floss (福罗斯和尚的睡房)
based on his own experience
—→ Adam Bede (亚当拜德)
—→ Silas Marner (织工马南)
44、George Eliot belongs to the second generation of the critical realism. (加了心里活动和自然主义的笔调)
45、Thomas Hardy (托马斯。哈代) —→ Far from the Madding Crowd (远离尘嚣)
—→ The Return of the Native (还乡)
以Wes***为源泉 —→ The Mayor of Casterbridge (卡斯特拉桥市长)
—→ Tess of the d‘Urberyvilles (苔丝)
—→ Jude the Obscure (无名的求得)
46、Thomas Hardy is of local colorism. (地方色彩主义)
47、Bernard Shaw (萧伯纳) —→ Heartbreak House (心碎之屋) 一战前的社会
—→ St. Joan (圣女贞德)
—→ Man and superman (人与超人) 哲学
—→ The Doctor‘s Dilemma (医生的抉择) 悲剧
—→ The Apple Cart (苹果车) examination of monarchy
—→ Major Barbara (巴巴拉上校) 喜剧
—→ Pygmalion (茶花女) 喜剧
48、Stowe (斯陀) —→ Uncle Tom‘s Cabin (汤姆叔叔的小屋) 废除奴隶制
49、Walt Whitman (惠特曼) —→ Leaves of Grass (草叶集)
—→ When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom‘d (当花园里的紫丁香开放的时候)
悼念林肯50、Whitman is the best representative of free verse. (自由体诗歌)
51、Whitman is the first American modern poet.
52、Whitman is put forward the idea of universal brotherhood.
53、Whitman used the common people‘s language or the humble speech. (卑下的发音)
54、Whitman used long， sweeping lines. (拖沓冗长的诗)
55、Mark Twain —→ Life on the Mississippi (密西西比河上的生活)
—→ Jumping Frog (跳蛙) 成名之作
—→ The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (哈克贝恩历险记)
美国第一部现代小说—→ The Gilded Age (镀金时代)
—→ The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (汤姆索亚历险记)
—→ The Prince and the Pauper (王子与贫儿)
56、Mark Twain is of local colorism， based on the Mississippi.
57、Mark Twain is called “the Lincoln of American literature”and “Father of the American Novel”
58、开创了美国当代小说，美国的民族文学是从马克吐温开始的。海明威说的59、Henry James —→ The Portrait of a Lady (贵妇人的画像)
—→ Daisy Miller (米勒)
—→ The Golden Bowl (金杯)
60、“the Master beyond all masters” refers to Henry James.
Impressionism was a form of artistic expression in the 19th century. It was most pervasive (普及) in painting， but it was also found in literature and art. (在文学与艺术中也可发现他的踪影) The term “impressionism”first appeared in 1874 in a newspaper review of an exhibition held in the studio (工作室) by a group of young painters. It was taken directly from the title of Monet‘s (莫纳) Impression： Sunrise. (日出印象)
During the 2nd half of the 19th century， French impressionism created a dramatic break with the art of the past， and created a form of art that was to affect (影响) nearly every ambitious (有雄心的) artist in the Western world. Van Gogh reacted against impressionism by using colour to suggest his own emotion and temperament (气质)。
63、Van Gogh —→ Starry Night (夜空) 后印象主义的代表是凡高
—→ Sunflower (向日葵)
—→ The Night Café（夜间咖啡屋)
64、Dvorak (德望侠克) —→ From the New World (新世界的交响)
—→ Goin‘ Home (回家)
65、Dvorak is Czech.
66、三种音乐形式：Program music (标题音乐)
Chamber works (室内乐)
67、Debussy (德彪西) —→ French composer
68、 Debussy was among the first to break away from the melodic (旋律) and harmonic (和谐) conventions (常规的) of the 18th and 19th centuries. (打破传统旋律性和和谐性的音乐家)
69、The American history is sharply Divide by the Great divide.
70、The Civil War has divided the American history， last (持续)from 1681 to 1685.
71、Contrasted with (对比) the British industrialization (工业化)， the Industrialization in American began after the Civil War.
72、In the realist period of American， the Cultural centre transformed from New England to New York.
论述简答一、What is the historical background of Realism？
1、 The realism movement was greatly influenced by the development of science in the 19th century. The age of realism was age of technological inventions.
2、The 19th century is the century of greatest change in the history of Western civilization. Germany and Italy， achieved their unification (完成统一)。
3、The Profound (极深的) social dislocation (断层) and urban (都市的) poverty (贫穷) brought about by the social and economic changes created severe problems to which the political and intellectual leaders of the 19th century reacted in a number of ways. One group was the liberals (自由党)。 Another group was the nationalists (民主党)， A third group was the socialists (社会党)。
1、Modernism名词解释Modernism was a complex and diverse (复杂多样的) international movement in all the creative arts (创造性艺术)， originating about the end of the 19th century. It provided (出现) the greatest creative renaissance of the 20th century. It was made up of many facets (方面)， such as symbolism， surrealism (超现实主义)， cubism (立体主义)， expressionism， futurism (未来主义)， ect.