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  6、“A novel is a mirror walking along the road”said Stendhal.(司汤达) 小说是映射现实的镜子 (来源:http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  7、By the 1850s the term realism was applied to the art of Gustave Courbet. (哥斯塔王)

  8、现实主义与浪漫主义的区别realism can be track back to the ancient times, but romanticism can not. And the realist‘s language was usually simple, clear and direct.

  9、The European Communist (共产主义) movement, armed (武装) with Marxist thought in realism.

  10、Germany and Italy, achieved their unification (完成统一) in realism.

  11、Stendhal —→ Armance

  French —→ The Red and the Black

  —→ The Charterhouse of Parma (帕尔玛大教堂)

  12、Balzac —→ The Human Comedy (人间喜剧)

  —→ Divine comedy (神曲) 受但丁神曲影响

  —→ Eugenie Grandet (葛朗台)

  —→ Le Père Goriot (高老头)

  —→ La Cousine Bette (贝蒂姨妈)

  13、The novels contented in the Human Comedy mark the beginnings of French realism. (标志着法国现实主义的开端)

  14、Balzac has been called “the French Dickens” as Dickens has been called “the English Balzac”

  15、Flaubert —→ Madame Bovary (包法利夫人)

  ⊙ 写作特点:the right word or phrase (用词恰如其分)

  ⊙ Flaubert is called “the first French realist” (法国现实主义第一人)

  ⊙ a model not only to French authors, among them Maupassant and Zola, but to Americans and Russians as well, notably (值得一提的是) Henry James and Turgenev.

  16、Zola —→ Les Rougen-Macquarts (罗根。马塔里)

  ⊙ Zola was the founder of the naturalist school. (自然主义流派的创始人)

  17、自然主义的特点:

  ⊙ the naturalistic novel is not only a record (记录) of men and manners (行为)。

  ⊙ to the naturalists the novel is a demonstration of social law. (社会法则的显示与说明)

  ⊙ the language used by naturalists must be the actual language used by people.

  18、Maupassant —→ The Necklace (项链)

  —→ The Piece of String (红丝带)

  —→ The Umbrella (雨伞)

  ⊙ Norman people (纯正法国后裔) Franco-Prussian War (普法战争)

  19、In the French realism, Maupassant was the only short story teller.

  20、The literary school in Russia realism was dangerous men.

  21、 The beginnings of modern Russian literature are to be traced to the Napoleonic wars. (拿破仑战争) Later the Russians participated in the battle of Waterloo. (滑铁卢战役)

  22、Gogol (果戈尔) —→ The Inspector General (钦差大臣)

  Russia —→ Dead Souls (死魂灵) 主人公是:Chichikov

  23、Turgenev —→ A Hunter‘s Sketches (猎人日记)

  on the abolition (废除) of serfdom

  —→ Rudin

  —→ A Nest of Gentlefolk (富人的巢穴)

  —→ Fathers and Sons

  24、Dostoyevsky (托斯妥耶夫斯基) —→ The House of Death (死亡之屋)?

  a record of life in Sibria (西伯利亚)

  —→ Crime and Punishment (罪与罚)

  criminal psychology (第一次研究犯罪心理学)

  —→ The Brothers Karamazov (~家族的三兄弟)

  never completed

  25、 The first novel on the study of criminal psychology in the European literature is Crime and Punishment written by Dostoyevsky.

  26、Leo Tolstoy (列夫。托尔斯泰) —→ War and Peace (战争与和平)

  —→ Anna Karenina (安娜卡列尼那)

  —→ Resurrection (复活)

  27、 With Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy made the Russian realistic novel a literary genre (类型) that ranks in importance with (与…并驾齐驱) classical Greek tragedy (悲剧) and Elizabethan drama. (莎士比亚的戏剧为主)

  28、He is especially known as an early champion of the non-violence protest. (非暴力运动先驱)

  29、He preached (倡导) a primitive Christianity. (基督教最初的教义)

  30、He denounced art for art‘s sake. (反对为艺术而艺术)

  31、Chekhov (契诃夫) —→ The Seagull (海鸥)

  —→ Uncle Vanya (万亚叔叔)

  —→ The Three Sisters (三姐妹)

  —→ The Cherry Orchard (樱桃园)

  —→ The Man in the Shell (套中人)

  32、His work is of smaller scope. (文学领域很狭窄)

  33、Chekhov is the only short story teller of the Russia realist literature.

  34、He avoided (没有使用) the “big scene” (大场面) and ignored the “heroic hero”。

  35、Stanislavsky (可能是主人公)

  36、Ibsen (挪威-易普生) —→ A Doll‘s House (玩偶之家)

  Norwegian —→ Ghosts (魂灵)

  —→ An Enemy of the People (人民公敌)

  —→ The Wild Duck (野鸭传)

  —→ Hedda Gabler (海达。盖勒普)

  37、Ibsen looked to ordinary (平常的) social and domestic relationships (国内关系) and situations for the subject-matter of his plays.

  38、His work is sharply (锐利的) critical of the hypocrisy (伪善) and seamy (丑恶的) politics of Norwegian provincial (地方性的) life.

  39、Ibsen‘s plays are viewed as the fountainhead of much modern drama. (当代戏剧的源头)

  40、Realism in England is Victoria‘s period. The climax of Capitalism. (资本主义全盛时期)

  41、Dickens (狄更斯) —→ Pickwick Papers (皮克。威克外传)

  —→ A tale of Two Cities (双城记)

  —→ Oliver Twist (雾都孤儿)

  —→ A Christmas Carol (圣诞欢歌)

  —→ Hard Times (艰难时刻) 描写了资本主义扩张时期

  —→ Bleak House (荒凉山庄)

  —→ David Copperfield (大卫。科波菲尔)

 
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