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  16、ft —→ Satirist (讽刺大师) in the English language (来源:英语杂志 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  —→ A modest Proposal (温和的建议)

  —→ Gulliver‘s Travels (格列佛游记)

  17、Fielding —→ Father of the English novel (英国现代小说之父) 第一个写小说的是乔叟

  —→ 小说类型为:Modern novel

  —→ The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (一个弃儿的历史)

  18、He was also the first person to approach the genre (类型) with a fully worked-out theory of the novel. (用小说理论进行创作的第一人)

  19、Goethe (歌德) —→ 德国文学第一人

  —→ The Sorrows of Young Werther (少年维特的烦恼) 郭沫若翻译

  —→ Faust (浮士德)

  —→ Poetry and Truth (诗和真理) Autobiography (自传体)

  20、Schiller (席勒) —→ He was a founder of modern German literature. 多产的作家

  Schiller and Goethe are the chief representatives of German classicism

  —→ The Robber (抢劫者)

  —→ Cabal and Love (阴谋与爱情)

  —→ Wilhelm Tell (威廉如是说)

  21、Kant (康德) —→ Waterhead of modern philosophy (当代哲学的源头)

  nebular hypothesis (那不勒假说 or 星云假说)

  —→ General History of Nature and Theory of the Heavens

  (自然发展史和天体理论) nebular hypothesis在这部作品中提出

  —→ Critique of Pure Reason (论纯粹的推理)

  rationalism with empiricism (把理论主义与经验主义融为一体)在上书中

  human knowledge is limited to the phenomenal world. 局限于外部世界

  22、The Musical Enlightenment (音乐启蒙运动)名词解释

  By the beginning of the 18th century the art of creating music had become almost entirely (完全) rationalized (理性化)。 It came to its richest fruition (高潮) in the works of Bach (巴赫) and Handel (亨德尔)。 Bach and Handel represented a trend (趋势) towards greater regularity (规律性) of style in the clearly defined types and forms, in a series (系列) of standardized formulas (公式)。

  23、Bach (巴赫)

  —Bach created a synthetic art (人为艺术) which summarized (总结) all the developments of the Baroque era.

  —为 Haydn (海顿), Mozart, and Beethoven 打下基础的人是Bach

  —Schumann said, “Music owes as much to Bach as Christianity does to its Founder.”

  (欧洲现代主义音乐的创始人)

  24、Handel (亨德尔)

  —combination (结合) of the Italian traditions of solo (独奏为主) and instrumental style, the English choral (合唱) tradition.

  —→ Messiah (米赛亚)轻歌剧教会音乐 ☆

  25、The Baroque Period was followed by the Classical Period, roughly between 1750 and 1820.

  26、Classical Period 三大代表:Haydn (海顿), Mozart, and Beethoven.

  27、以上三位代表为:Viennese School (维也纳流派)

  28、Haydn (海顿) —→ Austrian

  —→ London symphonies (伦敦交响乐) 以交响乐为主

  29、Mozart (莫扎特) 歌剧成就最高 英年早逝(文学上为:Keats)

  —→ Operas (歌剧)

  —→ Don Giovanni (唐璜)

  —→ The Marriage of Figaro (费加罗的婚礼)

  论述简答一、What is the historical context for the Enlightenment to develop?

  答:

  1、The American War of Independence (美国独立战争) of 1776 ended British colonial (殖民) rule over that country and got victory in 1783.

  ☆ The Declaration of Independence (独立宣言)

  2、The French Revolution broke out in 1789. The seizure (占领) of the Bastille (巴士底狱)。 The first French Republic was born in 1792.

  ☆ Declaration of the Rights of Man (人权宣言)

  3、 The Industrial Revolution (工业革命) the 1760‘s — the 1830’s, beginning with the invention of the steam engine, rapidly (迅速的) changed the face of the world (世界的面貌), and ushered in a completely new age. (开创了一个崭新的时代)

  二、What is the great significant of the Industrial Revolution? (只要问到工业革命就答这个)

  答:

  1、The introdution引入 of machines which reduced the need for hand labour in making goods.

  2、The substitution (替代) of steam power for water, wind, and animal power.

  3、The change from manufacturing (手工作坊) in the home to the factory system.

  4、New and faster method of transportation (交通方式) on land and on water.

  5、The growth of modern capitalism and the working class. (两大阶级的对立)

  第七章

    1、Romanticism名词解释Romanticism was a movement in literature, philosophy, music and art which developed in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Starting from the ideas of Rousseau in France and from the Storm and Stress movement (狂飙运动) in Germany. Romanticism emphasized individual values and aspirations (灵感) above those of society. As a reaction (反应) to the industrial revolution (工业革命), it looked to (承上启下) the Middle Ages and to direct contact with nature (与大自然的直接接触) for inspiration (灵感)。 Romanticism gave impetus (动力支持) to the national liberation movement (民族解放运动) in 19th century Europe.

  2、The literary and philosophical trend (倾向) in the Romantic philosophy was represented by Transcendentalism.(先验论)

  3、the theoretical (理论上的) groundwork (基础) for capitalism was Adam Smith‘s the wealth of Nations.

  4、Brotherhood最早由犬儒派提出,惠特曼的草叶集也提到5、French revolution with its slogans (口号) of liberty (自由), equality and universal brotherhood.

  6、Blake —→ Songs of Innocence (清白之歌) happy world

  —→ Songs of Experience (经验之歌) bitter world (苦涩)

  7、The Laker poets (The Lakers)

  ① Wordsworth —→ Lyrical Ballads (抒情民谣) 与 Coleridge 合写

 
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