② Secondly， Hobbes argued that individuals surrender (放弃) their rights to one man， the sovereign whose power is absolute. Locke argued that the individuals surrender their rights to the community as a whole (少数服从多数)。 According to him， by majority vote a representative is chosen， but his power not absolute. If he fails to implement (履行) the people‘s will， the people have the right to overthrow (推翻) him. (来源：英语学习门户网站EnglishCN.com)
十四、What are the courses of the English Revolution？
1、The growth of capitalism (资产阶级的出现)
2、The break-up of serfdom (农奴制被打破)
3、The Puritan movement (清教徒运动)
十五、How many stages has the English Revolution undergone (经历)？
1、The war between Parliament and the King： It was ended with the victory of the king.
2、The first civil war from 1642 to 1646.
3、The second civil war in 1648： It was ended with the victory of the Parliament.
4、The establishment of the Republic by Oliver Cromwell in 1649： CharlesⅠwas be headed.
5、The Restoration (复辟) of the stuart dynasty (斯图亚特王朝)： in 1660.
6、The Glorious Revolution (光荣革命) in 1688： Mary and William.
十六、What is the great significant of the English Revolution？
1、It was the first time that capitalism has defeated (击败) absolute monarchy (君主专制) in history.
2、The English Revolution marked that the modern times are approaching (接近)。
3、 After the English Revolution the constitutional monarchy (君主立宪制) has come into being as well as the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Right established the supremacy (至高无上的权利) of the Parliament and put an end to divine monarchy in England. The Bill of Rights limited the Sovereign‘s power (王权) in certain important directions.(方向)
十七、What are the characteristics of French classicism？
(How does French classicism differ from the other classicism？)
1、 In the French classical literature， man was viewed (认为) as a social being consciously (有意识的) and willingly (自动的) subject (主体) to discipline (纪律)。社会自然人
2、Rationalism (理性主义) was believed to be able to discover the best principles (原则) of human conduct (行为) and the universal (通用的) principles of natural laws. Here Descartes provided (提供的) the philosophical foundation for the French neoclassicism.(新古典主义)
3、French classicism was fond of using (善于使用) classical forms， classical themes (思想) and values (价值观念)。
Enlightement was an intellectual (知识分子) movement originating in France， which attracted (吸引) widespread (普遍的) support (支持) among the ruling (统治阶级) and intellectural classes of Europe and North America in the second half of the 18th century. It characterizes the efforts (作用) by certain European writers to use critical reason (批评推理) to free minds from prejudice (偏见)， unexamined authority (权威) and oppression (压迫) by Church or State (国家政权)。 Therefore the Enlightenment is sometimes called the Age of Reason (理智的年代)。
(Why do we say the 17th century provides the intellectual origin for the Enlightement？)
2、启蒙运动的先行者：John Locke and Isaac Newton
3、 Newton‘s theory of gravitation (万有引力理论) further demonstrated (进一步证实) to the world that the universe is governed (控制) by laws that could be understood by the human mind.(可以为人所知)
4、The major force of the Enlightenment was the French philosophes， such as Montesquieu， Voltaire (伏尔泰) and Rousseau (卢梭)。 Diederot， who edited the famous Encyclopédie (百科全书)。
5、Diederot —→ Encyclopédie (百科全书)。
6、Montesquieu—→ was the first of the great French men of letters associated with the Enlightenment
—→ Persian Letters (波斯人的信札)
—→ The spirit of the Laws (论法的精神)
7、It is an investigation (研究) of the environmental and social relationships that lie behind the laws of civilized society.
8、The definition of law by Montesquieu.
9、“must be adapted to each people” 是Montesquieu 在 The Spirit of the Laws 中提到
10、 The theory of the separation of powers (三权分立理论) was put forward by Montesquieu in his work The Spirit of the Laws. He believed that the legislative (立法)， executive (行政) and judicial (司法) powers must be confided (托付) to different individuals， acting independently. (独立的行为)
11、The theory of the separation of powers was accepted by the U.S. Constitution.
12、Voltaire (伏尔泰) —→ His works are an outstanding embodiment (杰出的体现) of the principles (原则性的) of the French Enlightenment.
—→ Letters Anglaise (Letters philosophiques) 哲学信件
—→ Candide (名字)
The greatest figures of the French Enlightenment (对浪漫主义文学思潮产生影响的法国哲学家是卢梭) he glorified human nature and attacked social inequality. (赞扬人的本质反对社会不平等)
—→ The Origin of Human Inequality (论人类平等的根源)
“man is born free， and everywhere he is in chains.”
—→ The Social Contract (社会契约论) social democracy 呼唤社会的民主
14、Rousseau 之所以比 Hobbes 和 Locke 更高级是因为他提出了 social democracy. P233
15、Daniel Defoe —→ Robinson Crusoe (鲁滨逊漂流记)
—→ One of the greatest fiction writers (小说作家) of 18th century England.