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  八、What is the theory of the Social Contract, according to the Hobbes? (来源:EnglishCN.com)

  答:

  1、It is necessary that there should be a common power (权利的集中) or government backed by force and able to punish (处罚)。

  2、Commonwealth (英联邦), in Latin, Civitas (共有财产)。

  3、 To escape (避免) anarchy (无政府状态), men enter into a social contract, by which they submit to the sovereign (君主)。 In return for (作为回报) conferring (赠与) all their powers and strength to the sovereign, men attain (达到) peace and security (安全)。

  4、The powers of the sovereign must be absolute (绝对的), and it is only be the centralization (中央集权) of authority (权利) in one person that the evil (邪恶) can be avoided.

  5、As to the form of government, Hobbes preferred monarchy.(主张君主制)

  6、Government was not created by God, but by men themselves.

  九、What are John Locke material view?

  答:

  1、 All our ideas are ultimately (最后) derived (来自) from sensation (感受) or from reflection (反思) and these two make up (组成) experience and all our knowledge springs from experience as well.

  2、Neither principles nor ideas are innate.(规律与人的思维都并非天生的)

  3、Sensation and reflection are the fountains of knowledge.(两大源泉)

  十、What is Locke‘s Political Philosophy?(政治哲学)

  答:

  1、Locke flatly rejected the theory of divine right of kings.(排除了君权神授的思想)

  2、 He ridiculed (嘲笑) the theory of transmission of royal authority (王权的世袭制) by saying that there was no evidence (证据) that Adam possessed (控制) a divinely (像神一样的) granted royal authority (授予王权), nor is there any evidence that his heirs (继承人) had it.

  3、Locke put forward the idea of the state of nature.(提出自然状态的观点)

  4、 For Locke, Nature Law, therefore, means a universally (普遍) obligatory (强制性的) moral law (道德法则) promulgated (发布) by the human reason. Whereas (然而) for Hobbes it means the law of power, force and fraud (欺骗)。

  5、Locke firmly believed in natural rights (天赋人权)。 The natural right is the right of private property (财产)。

  十一、What is the difference between Hobbes and Locke in terms of nature Law?

  答:

  For Locke, Nature Law, therefore, means a universally (普遍) obligatory (强制性的) moral law (道德法则) promulgated (发布) by the human reason. Whereas (然而) for Hobbes it means the law of power, force and fraud (欺骗)。

  十二、What is John Locke‘s Social Contract?

  答:

  1、Society is out of necessity, convenience and man‘s own interest, and therefore, society is natural to man.

  2、 The institution (制度) of political society and government must proceed (进行) from the consent (赞同) of those who are incorporated into (与…融为一体) political society and subject themselves to government.(人要完全屈服于政府的统治)

  3、 Locke emphasized (强调) that the social contract must be understood as involving the individual‘s consent (同意) to submit (服从) to the will of the majority (大多数人的意志) and that the will of the majority must prevail (流行)。

  4、Locke also believed that the ruler of government is one partner of the social contract.(是社会契约的签约方), If he violates (违反) the social contract, then government is effectively dissolved.(有效地取消), This idea was welcomed (采用) by the Americans during the American Revolution and the bourgeoisie revolution in England.(北美独立战争和英国资产阶级革命)

  十三、What is the different between Tomas Hobbes and John Locke in terms of Social Contract?

  答:

  1、Tomas Hobbes:

  ① It is necessary that there should be a common power (权利的集中) or government backed by force and able to punish (处罚)。

  ② Commonwealth (英联邦), in Latin, Civitas (共有财产)。

  ③ To escape (避免) anarchy (无政府状态), men enter into a social contract, by which they submit to the sovereign (君主)。 In return for (作为回报) conferring (赠与) all their powers and strength to the sovereign, men attain (达到) peace and security (安全)。

  ④ The powers of the sovereign must be absolute, and it is only be the centralization (中央集权) of authority (权利) in one person that the evil (邪恶) can be avoided.

  ⑤ As to the form of government, Hobbes preferred monarchy.(主张君主制)

  ⑥ Government was not created by God, but by men themselves.

  2、John Locke:

  ① Society is out of necessity, convenience and man‘s own interest, and therefore, society is natural to man.

  ② The institution (制度) of political society and government must proceed (进行) from the consent (赞同) of those who are incorporated into (与…融为一体) political society and subject themselves to government.(人要完全屈服于政府的统治)

  ③ Locke emphasized (强调) that the social contract must be understood as involving the individual‘s consent (同意) to submit (服从) to the will of the majority (大多数人的意志) and that the will of the majority must prevail (流行)。

  ④ Locke also believed that the ruler of government is one partner of the social contract.(是社会契约的签约方), If he violates (违反) the social contract, then government is effectively dissolved.(有效地取消), This idea was welcomed (采用) by the Americans during the American Revolution and the bourgeoisie revolution in England.(北美独立战争和英国资产阶级革命)

  3、Although both Tomas Hobbes and John Locke used the term “social contract”, they differed fundamentally.(根本上的不同)

  ① First, Hobbes argued men enter a social contract to escape the state of war, for, in his view, men are enemies and at war with each other. Locke argued men are equal and that they enter a social contract by reason.

 
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