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  —→ The Polish Rider (荷兰骑士) (来源:老牌的英语学习网站 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  论述简答一、Why do we say the 17th century is a transitional (过渡的) period from middle ages to the modern times?

  答:

  1、 This advance (前进) began in science, in astronomy (天文学), physics and pure mathematics (纯粹数学), owing to the work of Galileo, Kepler, Newton and Descartes.

  2、The outlook (世界观) of educated men was transformed. There was a profound (深远的) change in the conception (概念) of men‘s place in the universe.(人在宇宙中的位置)

  3、The new science and philosophy gave a great push to the political struggle waged by the newly emerged class (新兴的阶级), the bourgeoisie (资产阶级), and other chasses.

  4、The modern world, so far as mental outlook is concerned, begins in the 17th century.

  二、How did science develop in the 17th century?

  答:

  1、Copernicus: Helio-centric (日心说)

  2、Kepler:

  ①Kepler‘s Laws of planetary motion. (开普勒行星定律)

  ②Kepler proved Copernicus Helio-centric theory to be true.

  ③Kepler‘s Laws formed the basis of all modern planetary astronomy and led to Newton’s discovery of the laws of gravitation. (万有引力理论)

  3、Galile①He made a telescope. (望远镜)

  ②Galileo also proved Copernicus Helio-centric theory to be true.

  ③Galileo discovered the importance of acceleration in dynamics. (动力加速度)

  ④Galileo was also the first to establish the law of falling bodies. (落体理论的奠定)

  4、Newton:

  ①He invented calculus. (微积分)

  ②In optics (光学), he discovered that white light is composed (组成) of all the colour of the spectrum.(光谱)

  ③Newton established his name (声望) in the field of physics.

  ④Newton established the analytical method. (分析方法理论)

  5、Leibniz:

  ①Leibniz distinguishes three levels of understanding:

  the self-conscious (自我意识)

  the conscious and the unconscious or subconscious (无意识或下意识)

  This theory had a great influence on Freudian psychology.

  ②This theory of time and space had a great influence on einsteinian physics.

  ③He and Newton invented independently the differential (互不相关的) and intergral (整合性的) calculus.(微积分)

  三、What are the merits shared by the Great Scientists of 17th century?

  (Do you think there is something in common among the 17th century scientists? If there is, present your ideas on the statement.)

  答:

  During the 17th century, the modern Scientific method began to take shape (初见端倪)。 It emphasized (强调) observation (观察) and experimentation (实验) before formulating (表示) a final explanation or generalization (概括)。 Copernicus、Kepler、Galileo、Newton and other scientists of the time shared two merits (价值) which favoured the advance of science.(推动)

  1、First, they showed boldness (大胆性) in framing hypotheses.(假定框架)

  2、Second, they all had immense (极大的) patience (耐性) in observation.

  3、The combination (组合) of the two merits brought about fundamental (根本的) changes in man‘s scientific and philosophical thinking.

  四、What is Baconian Philosophical system?

  (What is the different between inductive method (归纳法) and deductive (演绎法) method?)

  答:

  1、 The whole basis of his philosophy was practical (实用主义哲学): to give mankind (人类) mastery (主宰) over the forces of nature by means of scientific discoveries and inventions.

  2、He held that philosophy should be kept separate from theology (神学), not intimately be blended with it as in Scholasticism.(与经院主义混为一谈)

  3、Bacon established the inductive method. Induction means reasoning (推理) from particular facts or individual cases to a general conclusion.(从特殊推一般)。 Deductive method emphasized (强调) reasoning from a known principle (原因) to the unknown and from the general to the specific.(从已知推未知,从一般推特殊)

  4、In a word, to break with the past (与过去相背离), and to restore (存储) man to his lost mastery of the natural world. This was what Bacon called the Great Instauration. (大恢复理论)

  五、What is Hobbes‘ material system?

  (What are Hobbes‘ materialist view?)

  答:

  1、Our knowledge comes from experience.(知识来源于实际)

  2、 Only material things are perceptible (可感知的), and knowable to us (为我们所知的)。 Our own experience alone is certain (个人的实践是确定无疑的)。 Men could not know anything about the existence of God. (人类无法感知上帝是否确定存在)

  3、When a thing lies (静止) still, unless something else stirs (搅动) it, it will lie still for ever.

  4、Hobbes systematized (系统化) Baconian materialism, but basically (基本上) he was a mechanical materialist.(机械唯物主义),费尔巴哈也是

  六、What is the natural state of war according to Hobbes?

  答:

  1、Equality of hope arises from the equality of ability.(欲望来自于能力的平等)

  2、If any two men desire (得到) the same thing, which nevertheless (虽然如此) they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies (敌人)。鱼和熊掌不可兼得

  3、From this, he concluded, until such time as men live under a common power (努力均衡), they are in a state of war with one another.

  七、What are the Laws of nature, according to the Hobbes?

  答:

  1、It is obviously (显然的) in man‘s interest to emerge from this natural state of war.(人的利益导致战争)

  2、 For by nature men have their passions (激情) and their reason. It is their passions which bring about the state of war (导致战争的自然状态)。

  3、Peace is necessary for survival (生存) and certain articles (条款) of peace, upon which men may be drawn to agreement (达成一致)。

 
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