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  4、The 17th century philosophy was focus on materialist in nature. (来源:老牌的英语学习网站 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  5、17th century Science: ☆physics ☆mathematics ☆chemistry biology psychology

  6、The modern world, so far as mental outlook is concerned, begins in the 17th century.现代世界从何时开始

  7、Kepler‘s Laws formed the basis of all modern planetary astronomy and led to Newton’s discovery of the laws of gravitation

  8、the laws of gravitation (万有引力的内容):

  the sun, the moon, the earth, the planets, and all the other bodies (天体) in the universe move in accordance with the same basic force, which is call gravitation.

  9、Francis Bacon‘s works —→ The Advancement of Learning

  —→ The New Atlantis

  —→ The Novum Organum (New Method)

  —→ Essays (散文集)

  10、Essays are Bacon‘s most widely read work.(流传最广的作品) 58 essays were included.(包含)

  11、Francis Bacon

  ① Knowledge is power. (知识就是力量)

  ② Virtue is like precious odours — most fragrant when they are incensed or crushed.

  品德像宝贵的气味-当被压碎或焚香时很芳香③ Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed (大致浏览), and some few to be chewed and digested.(翻翻而已)

  ④ Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.(纯粹的人) 读书可以使人成竹在胸

  ⑤ Histories make men wise. (学史可以使人明智)

  ⑥ Wives are young men‘s mistresses (情人), companions (伴侣) for middleage, and old men’s nurses.(照顾人的人)

  12、Tomas Hobbes —→ Leviathan

  13、the Great Instauration名词解释

  to break with the past (与过去相背离), and to restore (存储) man to his lost mastery of the natural world. This was what Bacon called the Great Instauration. (大恢复理论)

  14、Inductive method名词解释

  Inductive method was established by Francis Bacon in 17th century. Induction means reasoning (推理) from particular facts or individual cases to a general conclusion.(从特殊推一般)。 Induction was put over against Deductive method.

  15、All our ideas are ultimately (最后) derived from sensation (感受) or from reflection (反思) and these two make up experience and all our knowledge springs from experience as well.

  16、Locke also believed that the ruler of government is one partner of the social contract.(是社会契约的签约方)

  17、Hobbes —→ absolute Monarchy (君主制)

  Locke —→ Constitutional Monarchy (君主立宪制)

  18、The English Revolution is also called Bourgeoisie Revolution.

  19、Democracy (民主的体现是) —→ Parliament (议会)

  希腊民主的体现是公民大会20、The serfdom had begun breaking up as a result of the Enclosure Movement.(随着圈地运动德发展)

  21、 By the end of the 16th century, Calvinism had spread (传播) to England. As a result, the Puritan Movement was started in England. (清教徒运动开始了)

  22、1689, the Bill of Rights was enacted by the English Parliament (议会)。

  23、There are two leaders in the English Revolution. Cromwell was the man of action and Milton the man of thought.

  24、Milton —→ Paradise Lost (失乐园)

  选自:The fall of men (圣经的旧约)

  Satan 25、In Milton‘s poetic works, both the Renaissance and the Reformation showed their influence. (受两个运动的影响)

  26、Theory of Knowledge名词解释 简答 认知论

  Descartes employed (使用) methodic doubt (置疑方法论) with a view to discovering whether there was any indubitable (不容置疑的) truth. I doubt, therefore I think: I think, therefore I am. Doubting is thinking, thinking is the essence of the mind (精髓所在)。 Descartes believed that they are not dependable. (置疑是不可*的)

  27、Descartes‘s Dualism 二元论

  ① Thought (思维) was the foundation of all knowledge (认知) while the senses might deceive (欺骗) us. This is idealist. (唯心主义者)

  ② The external (外部) world existed (存在), which was independent (无关) of the human mind. This is materialist. (不以人的意识为转移)

  28、Classicism (新古典主义)名词解释

  Classicism implies (意味着) the revival (复苏) of the forms and traditions of the ancient world, a return to works of old Greek literature from Homer to Plato and Aristotle. But French classicism of the 17th century was not conscious of being a classical revival (并非古典主义的复苏)。 It intended to produce a literature, French to the core (以法语为中心), which was worthy of (与…相媲美) Greek and classical ideals. This neoclassicism (新古典主义) reached its climax in France in the 17th century.(代表:莫里哀和德国的歌德?席勒)

  29、French classicism of the 17th century was not conscious of being a classical revival (并非古典主义的复苏)。 判断

  30、 Rationalism (理性主义) was believed to be able to discover the best principles (原则) of human conduct (行为) and the universal (通用的) principles of natural laws. Here Descartes provided (提供的) the philosophical foundation for the French neoclassicism.(新古典主义)

  31、Molière (莫里哀) —→ The best representative of French neoclassicism.

  32、Baroque Art名词解释 承上启下的(法国新古典主义时期重要的)艺术形式

  Baroque Art, flourished first in Italy, and then spread to Spain, Portugal, France in south Europe and to Flander and the Netherlands (荷兰) in the North. It was characterized by dramatic intensity (强烈的艺术性) and sentimental appeal (哀婉的格调) with a lot of emphasis on light and colour.(强烈的明暗对比)

  33、Michelangelo Caravaggio —→ The Calling of St. Matthew (圣马赛的呼唤)

  —→ The Cardsharps (纸牌游戏)

  34、Dutch Protestant Art 新教艺术

  Rembrandt (伦勃朗) —→ Blinding of Samson (双目失明萨姆森)

 
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